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Effect of growth regulators on sucker production in exotic varieties of heliconia



 The demend of heliconias for cut flower trade is increasing day-by-day because of the long vase life, attractive colour and exotic shape. A study was  conducted to standardize growth regulators for enhacing propagation efficiency in  three  viz., St. Vincent Red (small erect type), Golden Torch Adrian (hybrid) and Sexy Pink (large pendent type) .  Two field trials were carried out for this purpose. Based on the results of the preliminary field trial, second experiment was laid out. At varietal level, significant difference was evident in the total number of suckers. In the first experiment, the variety St. Vincent Red (3.82) was significantly superior in terms of total number of suckers. However, in the second experiment, St. Vincent Red (4.06) was on par with Golden Torch Adrian (4.10). Application of growth regulators had pronounced effect on sucker production at all the stages during the first experiment when BA 750 mg l-1 produced the highest number (4.19) of total suckers. In the second experiment, variation was evident in the total number of suckers. Here, BA 850 mg l-1 produced the highest number (4.33) of suckers and it was on par with BA 700 mg l-1 (4.00) and GA3 650 mg l-1 (3.79). VG interaction exerted significant variation in the number of suckers. At varietal level, BA 750 mg l-1 produced the highest number of suckers in St. Vincent Red (4.75), GA3 500 mg l-1 in Golden TorchAdrian(4.63)and GA3 750 mg l-1 in Sexy Pink (4.00). Among VG treatment combinations in the second experiment, the highest number of suckers (4.75) in the variety St. Vincent Red was produced by BA 700 mg l-1. The varieties Golden Torch Adrian (4.88) and Sexy Pink (3.75) recorded the highest with BA 850 mg l-1. The economics of foliar application of growth regulators revealed that BA 850 mg l-1 significantly enhanced the profit in the varieties Golden Torch Adrian and Sexy Pink. Although negligible,BA 700 mg l-1 recorded slight positive response in the variety St. Vincent Red with respect to profit.

Karyotypic diversity between rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss, walbaum) and snow trout (schizothorax richardsonii, gray)


Metaphase spread of Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), 2n = 60

The Cytogenetic studies were carried out in two important coldwater fishes, Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and Snow trout (Schizothorax richardsonii), by Giemsa staining. The diploid chromosome number (2n) in Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) the modal diploid number was found to be 2n = 60. The karyotype formula obtained consist of 38 metacentric (M), 6 submetacentric (Sm) and 16 telocentric chromosomes (24M + 20 Sm + 16 T). The fundamental arm number was derived to be 208 (FN = 208) and in Snow trout (Schizothorax richardsonii), the modal diploid number was found to be 2n = 96. The karyotype formula obtained consist of 18 metacentric (M), 16 submetacentric (Sm) and 12 subtelocentric and 50 telocentric chromosomes (18 M + 28 Sm + 50 T). The fundamental arm number was derived to be 284 (FN = 284). This is the attempt to compare the wild snow trout obtained from Himalayan stream and farm raised Rainbow trout in these species using conventional staining.

Standardization of propagation techniques in Vellerukku (calotropis procera (ait) ait.F)



 A field experiment was conducted at Agricultural College and research Institute, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Killikulam, Tamil Nadu to standardize the vegetative propagation technique in vellerukku. Three types of cuttings viz., terminal, middle and basal cuttings and three types of growth regulators viz., IBA, NAA @ 500 ppm and 1000ppm alone and in combination and control were used. The result revealed that the terminal cuttings treated with IBA 500 ppm registered the highest rooting percent (86.66 percent and 90.00 percent), number of roots (11.21 and 11.47), root length (23.75 cm and 24.98 cm), shoot length (29.40 cm and 30.64 cm) and survival percentage in the main field (68.13 percent and 71.20 percent) under both the environment viz. open and mist condition were recorded by the terminal cuttings treated with IBA 500 ppm. It was followed by terminal cuttings treated with IBA 1000 ppm. Whereas control (basal cuttings dipped in distilled water) recorded the lowest values of 18.20 and 23.28 percent of rooting, 7.03 and 7.08 number of roots, 16.14 cm and 17.12 cm root length, 19.54 cm and 20.03 cm shoot length 11.62 and 12.47 percent survival in the mainfield under both open as well as mist condition. 

Weed Species in Sugarcane Crop Fields of Chodavaram Mandal of Visakhapatnam District, Andhra Pradesh, India


Dominated family wise analysis of weed species

 A field survey was conducted during 2013-14 in sugarcane fields of Chodavaram Mandalam, Visakhapatnam District, Andhra Pradesh to study the weed flora. A total of 63 weed species were recorded, of these 63 species, 52 dicot families, 10 monocot families and 1 Pteridophyte. Asteraceae 9, Amaranthaceae 9, Poaceae 8, Euphorbiaceae 6, Aizoaceae 3, Capparaceae 3, Convolvulaceae 2, Fabaceae 2, Malvaceae 2, Portulacaceae 2, Solanaceae 2, Tiliaceae 2 species, remaining families each one had single species. Among the weeds, Panicum repens is the most dominant followed by Cyperus rotundus, Echinochloa colona, Ageratum conyzoides and Imperata cylindrica. The survey also revealed that creepers like Passiflora foetida, Ipomoea aquatica, Hemidesmus indicus, Tinospora cardifolia etc. are dominant. 

Cytological Characterization of Capsicum Annuum Var. Paprika (Tatassi) {solanaceae}cultivated in Owerri, Eastern Nigeria


PLATE 1: (A) Fruit morphology C annuum var. paprika. (B) Karyotype of the crop (C) Ideogram of the crop

 Cytological investigation of Capsicum annuum Lin. Var. paprika (tatassi) cultivatedin Owerri, eastern Nigeria was undertaken in order to generate cytological information on its karyological profile which could be factored into decisions pertaining to appropriate crop improvement regimes for the crop. Ripe fruits were obtained from three small Holding farms within Owerri metropolis. Seeds of fruits were extracted, air-dried and processed for chromosomal investigation. Root-tips were pretreated in 0.05% colchicine and fixed in acetic ethanol. A somatic chromosome number of 2n= 24 was after squashing in 2% acetic orcein. Further karyological findings showed that chromosome size ranged from medium to large with a mean of 5.45µm. Metacentrics dominated the karyotype (75%) while remaining were submetacentrics and subtelocentrics. A coefficient of variation (CV) value of 10.08 lent credence to the inference that ample karyotypic variability exists in this crop to ensure positive response to selection and/or intra-varietal hybridization methods of crop improvement

Fertigation Studies in Tomato



 A field trial on fertigation studies on tomato was conducted at the Department of Vegetable Crops, Horticultural College and Research Institute, Coimbatore. The experiment include totally seven treatments viz., Soil application of normal fertilizers at 100 percent RDF (T1), Soil application of normal fertilizers at 100 percent RDF and drip irrigation (T2), drip fertigation with normal fertilizers at 100 percent RDF (T3), drip fertigation with normal fertilizers at 75 percent RDF (T4), drip fertigation with water soluble fertilizers at 100 percent RDF using MAP, Multi K and Urea (T5), drip fertigation with water soluble fertilizers at 75 percent RDF using MAP, Multi K and Urea (T6) and drip fertigation with water soluble fertilizers at 50 percent RDF using MAP, Multi K and Urea (T7). The experiment was laidout in a randomized block design and replicated thrice. The results of the study revealed that drip fertigation with water soluble fertilizers at 100 per cent RDF using MAP, Multi K and Urea significantly increased the plant height, dry matter production, leaf area index, total chlorophyll content, number of fruits per plants, fruit weight and yield per plant. It was followed by drip fertgation with water soluble fertilizers at 75 percent RDF using MAP, Multi K and Urea and drip fertigation with normal fertilizers at 100 percent RDF using Urea, Single Super Phosphate and Muriate of Potash. Similarly, the same treatment also recorded increased values for quality traits viz., TSS, titrable acidity and ascorbic acid content of fruits. Higher nutrient uptake and fertilizer use efficiency were observed by drip fertigation with water soluble fertilizers at 75 perent RDF using MAP, Multi K and Urea and drip fertigation with normal fertilizers at 100 percent RDF using Urea, Single Super Phosphate and Muriate of Potash.

Biocontrol of Post-harvest Fungal Diseases of Citrus Scinensis (Sweet Orange) Using Leaf Extracts of Azadirachta Indica (Neem) and Chromolaena Odorata


sweet oranges displayed for sale in the market

 Post-harvest deterioration is a major problem of sweet orange (C. sinensis) production in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Miicrobial infection of the fruits is mainly responsible. The present study was therefore, carried out to identify and biologically control the micro-organisms responsible for orange fruit rot during storage. Aqueous leaf extracts of Azadirachta indica and Chromolaena odorata were used as biological agents against fungal isolates. Samples of rotten orange fruits were collected from different markets across the state. Four fungal isolates (Penicillium digitatum, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus and Cladosporium herbarum ) obtained from naturally infected fruits were confirmed to be causal agents through pathogenicity testing. Phytochemical analysis of the extracts revealed higher amounts of polyphenols, flavonoids, saponin, tannin and alkaloids in A. indica compared to C. odorata. In-vitro investigations showed that 30% concentration of A. indica leaf extracts caused highest mycelial growth inhibition of the four pathogens (70, 75, 83 and 88% respectively) compared to the control, while extracts of C. odorata caused relatively lower inhibition of mycelial growth (50, 61, 61, 62% respectively) at the same concentration. Percentage inhibition increased with increase in extract concentration. These results indicate that aqueous leaf extract of A. indica is a better biocontrol agent of post-harvest orange fruit fungal diseases. Further studies are ongoing to test the validity of these results in the field. 

Selective Evaluation of Insecticides to Control Tomato Pests to Trichogramma Chilonis (Trichogrammatidae: Hymenopthera) Adult Survival


: Toxicities of abamectin, chlorpyriphos, cypermethrin, indoxacarb, malathion, quinalphos, spinosad and triazophos on field adult populations of T. Chilonis from tomato crop after 24 h of exposure

 The effect of the insecticides avermectin (abamectin) and some organophosphates (chlorpyriphos, malathion, quinolphos, triazophos), oxadiazine (indoxacarb), and spinosyn (spinosad) as well as with pyrethroids (cypermethrin) on laboratory and field adult populations of the egg parasitoid Trichogramma chilonis (Hyn: Trichogrammatidae) was evaluated under laboratory conditions, using the standard tests (residue test on glass tubes) described by IOBC. When tested on the adult populations of the parasitoids chlorpyriphos, malathion, quinolphos, triazophos proved to be most lethal insecticides on the adult survival of the parasitoid. Similarly abamectin and cypermethrin were also found to be harmful on the adult survival of the parasitoid. Indoxacarn and spinosad was found to be least harmful on the adult survival of the egg parasitoid 

Analysis of Factors Affecting Meat Demand in Michika Local Government Area of Adamawa State, Nigeria



 Meat is an important component of the diet of people needed for a healthy living. This study basically analysed the factors affecting meat demand in Michika Local Government Area of Adamawa State, Nigeria. Primary data were used and collected from 148 randomly selected household heads using structured questionnaires. Multistage random sampling technique was employed in the selection of respondents. Descriptive statistics and multiple regression analysis were employed in analysis of the data. The results revealed that majority (74%) of the household heads were men and married, with an average household size of 8 persons. About 74% of them have attained some levels of formal education, 40% were farmers and they earn an average of ₦32,182.67 a month. Their meat sources were predominantly from cattle and poultry birds. The result of regression analysis revealed that family size, marital status, level of education and monthly income positively influences meat demand in the area. However, age was found to negatively affect meat demand. The coefficient of determination was 0.87 indicating that 87% of the variation in meat demand was explained by the variables used in the model. The study recommends that household heads diversify their income sources to increase the family’s disposable income. Training programmes be organized for household heads on nutrition and dietetics to sensitize them on the nutritional diseases associated with protein deficiency.

Extraction of Enzymes From Potato Peels Substrate Using Bacillus Megatarium


Graph of Concentration v/s O.D. of standard glucose determined by Anthrone method

 Here the work contains Extraction of Enzymes from Potato Peels Substrate Using Bacillus Megatarium. The work was done to study the growth habit of microbes on standard media, standardize the conditions for growth of microbes using potato peel & and measure the efficacy of filtrate as enzyme source. Experimental details were like Design-CRD, 3 replication & 8 treatments. Bacterial strains were used like B1 = B. megatarium, B2 = No bacteria, Incubation temperature T1 = 370C , T2 = Room Temperature (R.T.) and Incubation Hours H1 = 24 , H2 = 48. Bacterial strain B. megatarium consume maximum amount of starch (96.27 mg/g) as compare to other treatments. Amylase and protease enzymes activity also found in highest in treatment 4 (T4) and All the results were within accepted criteria.