Weed Species in Sugarcane Crop Fields of Chodavaram Mandal of Visakhapatnam District, Andhra Pradesh, India

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Dominated family wise analysis of weed species

 A field survey was conducted during 2013-14 in sugarcane fields of Chodavaram Mandalam, Visakhapatnam District, Andhra Pradesh to study the weed flora. A total of 63 weed species were recorded, of these 63 species, 52 dicot families, 10 monocot families and 1 Pteridophyte. Asteraceae 9, Amaranthaceae 9, Poaceae 8, Euphorbiaceae 6, Aizoaceae 3, Capparaceae 3, Convolvulaceae 2, Fabaceae 2, Malvaceae 2, Portulacaceae 2, Solanaceae 2, Tiliaceae 2 species, remaining families each one had single species. Among the weeds, Panicum repens is the most dominant followed by Cyperus rotundus, Echinochloa colona, Ageratum conyzoides and Imperata cylindrica. The survey also revealed that creepers like Passiflora foetida, Ipomoea aquatica, Hemidesmus indicus, Tinospora cardifolia etc. are dominant. 

Cytological Characterization of Capsicum Annuum Var. Paprika (Tatassi) {solanaceae}cultivated in Owerri, Eastern Nigeria

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PLATE 1: (A) Fruit morphology C annuum var. paprika. (B) Karyotype of the crop (C) Ideogram of the crop

 Cytological investigation of Capsicum annuum Lin. Var. paprika (tatassi) cultivatedin Owerri, eastern Nigeria was undertaken in order to generate cytological information on its karyological profile which could be factored into decisions pertaining to appropriate crop improvement regimes for the crop. Ripe fruits were obtained from three small Holding farms within Owerri metropolis. Seeds of fruits were extracted, air-dried and processed for chromosomal investigation. Root-tips were pretreated in 0.05% colchicine and fixed in acetic ethanol. A somatic chromosome number of 2n= 24 was after squashing in 2% acetic orcein. Further karyological findings showed that chromosome size ranged from medium to large with a mean of 5.45µm. Metacentrics dominated the karyotype (75%) while remaining were submetacentrics and subtelocentrics. A coefficient of variation (CV) value of 10.08 lent credence to the inference that ample karyotypic variability exists in this crop to ensure positive response to selection and/or intra-varietal hybridization methods of crop improvement

Fertigation Studies in Tomato

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 A field trial on fertigation studies on tomato was conducted at the Department of Vegetable Crops, Horticultural College and Research Institute, Coimbatore. The experiment include totally seven treatments viz., Soil application of normal fertilizers at 100 percent RDF (T1), Soil application of normal fertilizers at 100 percent RDF and drip irrigation (T2), drip fertigation with normal fertilizers at 100 percent RDF (T3), drip fertigation with normal fertilizers at 75 percent RDF (T4), drip fertigation with water soluble fertilizers at 100 percent RDF using MAP, Multi K and Urea (T5), drip fertigation with water soluble fertilizers at 75 percent RDF using MAP, Multi K and Urea (T6) and drip fertigation with water soluble fertilizers at 50 percent RDF using MAP, Multi K and Urea (T7). The experiment was laidout in a randomized block design and replicated thrice. The results of the study revealed that drip fertigation with water soluble fertilizers at 100 per cent RDF using MAP, Multi K and Urea significantly increased the plant height, dry matter production, leaf area index, total chlorophyll content, number of fruits per plants, fruit weight and yield per plant. It was followed by drip fertgation with water soluble fertilizers at 75 percent RDF using MAP, Multi K and Urea and drip fertigation with normal fertilizers at 100 percent RDF using Urea, Single Super Phosphate and Muriate of Potash. Similarly, the same treatment also recorded increased values for quality traits viz., TSS, titrable acidity and ascorbic acid content of fruits. Higher nutrient uptake and fertilizer use efficiency were observed by drip fertigation with water soluble fertilizers at 75 perent RDF using MAP, Multi K and Urea and drip fertigation with normal fertilizers at 100 percent RDF using Urea, Single Super Phosphate and Muriate of Potash.

Biocontrol of Post-harvest Fungal Diseases of Citrus Scinensis (Sweet Orange) Using Leaf Extracts of Azadirachta Indica (Neem) and Chromolaena Odorata

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sweet oranges displayed for sale in the market

 Post-harvest deterioration is a major problem of sweet orange (C. sinensis) production in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Miicrobial infection of the fruits is mainly responsible. The present study was therefore, carried out to identify and biologically control the micro-organisms responsible for orange fruit rot during storage. Aqueous leaf extracts of Azadirachta indica and Chromolaena odorata were used as biological agents against fungal isolates. Samples of rotten orange fruits were collected from different markets across the state. Four fungal isolates (Penicillium digitatum, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus and Cladosporium herbarum ) obtained from naturally infected fruits were confirmed to be causal agents through pathogenicity testing. Phytochemical analysis of the extracts revealed higher amounts of polyphenols, flavonoids, saponin, tannin and alkaloids in A. indica compared to C. odorata. In-vitro investigations showed that 30% concentration of A. indica leaf extracts caused highest mycelial growth inhibition of the four pathogens (70, 75, 83 and 88% respectively) compared to the control, while extracts of C. odorata caused relatively lower inhibition of mycelial growth (50, 61, 61, 62% respectively) at the same concentration. Percentage inhibition increased with increase in extract concentration. These results indicate that aqueous leaf extract of A. indica is a better biocontrol agent of post-harvest orange fruit fungal diseases. Further studies are ongoing to test the validity of these results in the field. 

Selective Evaluation of Insecticides to Control Tomato Pests to Trichogramma Chilonis (Trichogrammatidae: Hymenopthera) Adult Survival

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: Toxicities of abamectin, chlorpyriphos, cypermethrin, indoxacarb, malathion, quinalphos, spinosad and triazophos on field adult populations of T. Chilonis from tomato crop after 24 h of exposure

 The effect of the insecticides avermectin (abamectin) and some organophosphates (chlorpyriphos, malathion, quinolphos, triazophos), oxadiazine (indoxacarb), and spinosyn (spinosad) as well as with pyrethroids (cypermethrin) on laboratory and field adult populations of the egg parasitoid Trichogramma chilonis (Hyn: Trichogrammatidae) was evaluated under laboratory conditions, using the standard tests (residue test on glass tubes) described by IOBC. When tested on the adult populations of the parasitoids chlorpyriphos, malathion, quinolphos, triazophos proved to be most lethal insecticides on the adult survival of the parasitoid. Similarly abamectin and cypermethrin were also found to be harmful on the adult survival of the parasitoid. Indoxacarn and spinosad was found to be least harmful on the adult survival of the egg parasitoid 

Analysis of Factors Affecting Meat Demand in Michika Local Government Area of Adamawa State, Nigeria

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 Meat is an important component of the diet of people needed for a healthy living. This study basically analysed the factors affecting meat demand in Michika Local Government Area of Adamawa State, Nigeria. Primary data were used and collected from 148 randomly selected household heads using structured questionnaires. Multistage random sampling technique was employed in the selection of respondents. Descriptive statistics and multiple regression analysis were employed in analysis of the data. The results revealed that majority (74%) of the household heads were men and married, with an average household size of 8 persons. About 74% of them have attained some levels of formal education, 40% were farmers and they earn an average of ₦32,182.67 a month. Their meat sources were predominantly from cattle and poultry birds. The result of regression analysis revealed that family size, marital status, level of education and monthly income positively influences meat demand in the area. However, age was found to negatively affect meat demand. The coefficient of determination was 0.87 indicating that 87% of the variation in meat demand was explained by the variables used in the model. The study recommends that household heads diversify their income sources to increase the family’s disposable income. Training programmes be organized for household heads on nutrition and dietetics to sensitize them on the nutritional diseases associated with protein deficiency.

Extraction of Enzymes From Potato Peels Substrate Using Bacillus Megatarium

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Graph of Concentration v/s O.D. of standard glucose determined by Anthrone method

 Here the work contains Extraction of Enzymes from Potato Peels Substrate Using Bacillus Megatarium. The work was done to study the growth habit of microbes on standard media, standardize the conditions for growth of microbes using potato peel & and measure the efficacy of filtrate as enzyme source. Experimental details were like Design-CRD, 3 replication & 8 treatments. Bacterial strains were used like B1 = B. megatarium, B2 = No bacteria, Incubation temperature T1 = 370C , T2 = Room Temperature (R.T.) and Incubation Hours H1 = 24 , H2 = 48. Bacterial strain B. megatarium consume maximum amount of starch (96.27 mg/g) as compare to other treatments. Amylase and protease enzymes activity also found in highest in treatment 4 (T4) and All the results were within accepted criteria.

Mycotoxic Effectsn of Seed-Borne Fungi on Seed Health of Black Gram

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 Green gram, Black gram, Pigeon pea and chickpea are common pulses in diet rich in carbohydrates, proteins and minerals. Numerous fungi affect pulses adversely causing reduction in seed content and seed health. During present study, effects of metabolites of seed-borne fungi on seed health are evaluated. Total seventeen fungi recorded from all test pulses. Out of these seventeen seed-borne fungi, six, Aspergillus flavus, A. fumigatus, A. niger, Drechslera tetramera and Rhizopus stolonifer, found to be common and dominant on four test pulses. These common and dominant seed-borne fungi produced mycotoxins that affected adversely to the seed germination, shoot and root length of test pulse Black gram in variable quantity.

Growth and Nutritional Properties of Pleurotus Sajor-caju Cultivated on Sawdust of an Exotic and Indigenous Tree Species

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A graph representing the rate at which the two substrates used support the growth of pleurotus Sajor-cajo

 Pleurotus Sajor-caju was cultivated on the sawdust of Ceiba pentandra and Gmelina arborea with the aim of comparing the nutritional values of the mushrooms cultivated. The sawdust substrates were inoculated with mushroom spawn and the analysis of the nutritional value was carried out using the AOAC 2005 method . The result showed that the pleurotus Sajor-caju grown on the sawdust substrates of Ceiba pentandra has 23.36% protein, 70.42% fat, 3.58% crude fibre, 9.12% nitrogen, 57.02% moisture content, 59.99% organic matter and 29.98% nitrogen. While the mushroom grown on Gmelina arborea has 23.43% protein, 65.06%fat, 2.73% crude fiber, 9.15% nitrogen, 67.76% moisture content, 65.84% organic matter and 24.13% nitrogen. The result indicated that there was no significant difference in the nutritional values of Pleurotus Sajor-caju grown on the sawdust from the selected species. Also, ceiba pentandra supports the growth of pleurotus Sajor-caju more than Gmelina arborea when the total number of days it took both substrates to ramified and emerge spores.

Efficient in vitro regeneration of biodiesel Plant jatropha curcas .L

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Jatropha curcas grown under field condition

 In the present investigation, in vitro propagation of Jatropha curcas L. was achieved employing nodal explants. Axillary shoot bud proliferation was best initiated on Murashige and Skoog’s (MS) medium supplemented with 20 μM N6-benzyl- adenine (BA) and 50 μ M adenine sulphate, in which cultures produced 8.2 ± 0.56 shoots per nodal explant with 3.0 cm length after 3-5 weeks. The rate of shoot multiplication was significantly enhanced after transfer to MS medium supplemented with 2.5 μ M 6-furfuryl amino purine (Kn), 0.5 μ M indole- 3-butyric acid (IBA) and 25 μ M adenine sulphate for 4 weeks. Internode explant segments of Jatropha curcas plants responded in vitro and formed callus tissue when cultured on Murashige-Skoog (MS) full strength nutrient medium supplemented with 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D – 4 mg/L) and N6-Benzyl adenine (BA- 4 mg/L). The internode-derived callus tissues were found non-embryogenic and hence did not regenerate into shoot and root, respectively. The internode segments when cultured on MS (full strength) media supplemented with BA – 5 mg/L) were found to grow forming two to three buds. However, these shooting explants did not form roots upon hormonal regulation. On the contrary, endosperm tissue cultured on full strength MS media supplemented with 3 mg/L BA and 1 mg/L Indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) along with activated charcoal (100 mg/L) and ascorbic acid (50 mg/L) yielded simultaneous shooting and rooting response after four weeks of incubation.